The words and terms in italics in this Code shall have the following
Access to exit
means that part of a means of egress within a floor area that provides access to an exit serving the floor area.
means the adhesion of soil to a foundation unit resulting from the freezing of soil water.
(Also referred to as “frost grip.”)
Air barrier system
means the assembly
installed to provide a continuous barrier to the movement of air.
means a structure
consisting of a pliable membrane which achieves and maintains its
shape and support by internal air pressure.
means an audible signal
transmitted throughout a zone or zones or throughout a building to advise occupants that a fire emergency
means an audible signal
to advise designated persons of a fire emergency.
means a change or extension
to any matter or thing or to any occupancy regulated by this Code.
Apparent sound transmission class (ASTC)
means a single number rating of the airborne sound attenuation of building assemblies separating two adjoining
spaces, taking into account both the direct and flanking sound transmission
paths. (See Appendix A.) (See also Appendix Note A-9.11. of Division B.)
means a device to convert
fuel into energy and includes all components, controls, wiring and
piping required to be part of the device by the applicable standard
referred to in this Code.
means a confined
body of water under pressure in the ground.
means the occupancy or the use of a building, or part thereof, by a gathering of persons for civic,
political, travel, religious, social, educational, recreational or
like purposes, or for the consumption of food or drink.
Attic or roof space
means the space
between the roof and the ceiling of the top storey or between a dwarf wall and a sloping roof.
Authority having jurisdiction
the governmental body responsible for the enforcement of any part
of this Code or the official or agency designated by that body to
exercise such a function.
means that a building and its facilities can be approached,
entered, and used by persons with physical or sensory disabilities.
means a storey or storeys of a building located below the first storey.
means the contact surface
between a foundation unit and the soil or rock upon which
means an appliance intended to supply hot water or steam for space
heating, processing or power purposes.
Braced wall band
means an imaginary
continuous straight band extending vertically and horizontally through
the building or part of the building, within which braced wall panels are constructed.
Braced wall panel
means a portion of
a wood-frame wall where bracing, sheathing, cladding or interior finish
is designed and installed to provide the required resistance to lateral
loads due to wind or earthquake.
means a flue pipe or chamber for receiving flue gases from one or more flue connections
and for discharging these gases through a single flue connection.
means any structure used or
intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.
means the greatest horizontal
area of a building above grade within the outside surface of exterior walls or within
the outside surface of exterior walls and the centre line of firewalls.
(in storeys) means the number of storeys contained between the roof and the floor of the first storey.
Business and personal services occupancy
means the occupancy or use of a building or part thereof for the transaction
of business or the rendering or receiving of professional or personal
means the provision of services
other than treatment by or through care
facility management to residents who require these services because
of cognitive, physical or behavioural limitations.
means the occupancy or use of a building or part thereof where care is provided to
residents. (See Appendix A.)
means a construction of
masonry units laid with a cavity between the wythes. The wythes are
tied together with metal ties or bonding units, and are relied on
to act together in resisting lateral loads.
means a primarily vertical shaft
enclosing at least one flue for conducting flue gases to the outdoors.
means a conduit containing
a chimney flue used
as a lining of a masonry or concrete chimney.
means a device or assembly for
closing an opening through a fire separation or an exterior wall, such as a door, a shutter, a
damper, wired glass or glass block, and includes all
components such as hardware, closing devices, frames and anchors.
means that a material fails
to meet the acceptance criteria of
type of construction that does not meet the requirements for noncombustible construction.
means dusts and particles
that are ignitable and liable to produce an explosion.
means finely divided,
combustible vegetable or animal fibres and thin sheets or flakes of
such materials which, in a loose, unbaled condition, present a flash
fire hazard, including cotton, wool, hemp, sisal, jute, kapok, paper
means a liquid having
a flash point at or above 37.8°C and below 93.3°C.
means any space within
a building the temperature of which is
controlled to limit variation in response to the exterior ambient
temperature by the provision, either directly or indirectly, of heating
or cooling over substantial portions of the year.
means a person who contracts
with an owner or their authorized agent to
undertake a project, and includes an owner who contracts with more than one person for the work on a project
or undertakes the work on a project or any part thereof.
Contained use area
means a supervised
area containing one or more rooms in which occupant movement is restricted
to a single room by security measures not under the control of the
means a cooking surface having
one or more burners or heating elements.
means products, materials or substances that are
- regulated by (see Table 22.214.171.124. of Division B of the NFC), or
- classified as controlled products under (see Note A-Table 126.96.36.199. of
Division B of the NFC).
means the weight of all permanent
structural and non-structural components of a building.
means a foundation unit that provides support for
a building by transferring loads either
by end-bearing to soil or rock at considerable depth below the building, or by adhesion or friction, or both, in the soil or rock in which it is placed. Piles are the most common type of deep foundation.
means the person responsible
for the design.
means the occupancy by persons who are restrained from
or are incapable of evacuating to a safe location without the assistance
of another person because of security measures not under their control.
means a process plant where distilled beverage
alcohols are produced, concentrated or otherwise processed,
and includes facilities on the same site where the concentrated products
may be blended, mixed, stored or packaged.
Distilled beverage alcohol
means a beverage
that is produced by fermentation and contains more than 20% by volume
of water-miscible alcohol.
(as applying to a fuel-fired
space- or water-heating appliance) means
an appliance and its venting system in
which all the combustion air is supplied directly from the outdoors
and the products of combustion are vented directly to the outdoors
via independent, totally enclosed passageways connected directly to
means a suite operated as a housekeeping unit, used or intended to
be used by one or more persons and usually containing cooking, eating,
living, sleeping and sanitary facilities.
means the space created by
the removal of soil, rock or fill for the purposes of construction.
means a duct through which
air is conveyed from a room or space to the outdoors.
means that part of a means of egress, including doorways, that leads
from the floor area it serves to a separate building, an open public thoroughfare, or an
exterior open space protected from fire exposure from the building and having access to an open public
thoroughfare. (See Appendix A.)
means the level of an exit stairway at which an exterior exit door or exit passageway leads
to the exterior.
(as applying to Subsection 3.2.6. of Division B) means a storey having an exterior exit door.
Exposing building face
means that part
of the exterior wall of a building that
faces one direction and is located between ground level and the ceiling
of its top storey or, where a building is divided into fire compartments, the exterior wall of a fire compartment that faces one direction.
means a chimney consisting entirely of factory-made parts,
each designed to be assembled with the other without requiring fabrication
means a building or part thereof that does not contain a residential occupancy and that is associated
with and located on land devoted to the practice of farming, and used
essentially for the housing of equipment or livestock, or the production,
storage or processing of agricultural and horticultural produce or
feeds. (See Appendix A.)
means soil, rock, rubble, industrial waste such as
slag, organic material or a combination of these that is transported
and placed on the natural surface of soil or rock or organic terrain. It may or may not be compacted.
means a material, component
or system that restricts the spread of fire within a concealed space
or from a concealed space to an adjacent space.
means an enclosed space
in a building that is separated from all
other parts of the building by enclosing
construction providing a fire separation having a required fire-resistance rating.
means a closure consisting of a damper that is installed in an air
distribution system or a wall or floor assembly and that is normally
held open but designed to close automatically in the event of a fire
in order to maintain the integrity of the fire
means a device that detects
a fire condition and automatically initiates an electrical signal
to actuate an alert signal or alarm signal and includes heat detectors and smoke detectors.
(as applying to an occupancy) means the combustible contents of a room or floor area expressed
in terms of the average weight of combustible materials per unit area, from which the potential heat liberation
may be calculated based on the calorific value of the materials, and
includes the furnishings, finished floor, wall and ceiling finishes,
trim and temporary and movable partitions.
means the time
in minutes or hours that a closure will withstand
the passage of flame when exposed to fire under specified conditions
of test and performance criteria, or as otherwise prescribed in this
means the time
in minutes or hours that a material or assembly of materials will
withstand the passage of flame and the transmission of heat when exposed
to fire under specified conditions of test and performance criteria,
or as determined by extension or interpretation of information derived
therefrom as prescribed in this Code. (See B-1.2.1.(2) in Appendix D of Division B.)
or a wood product that has had its surface-burning characteristics,
such as flame spread, rate of fuel contribution and density of smoke
developed, reduced by impregnation with fire-retardant chemicals.
means a construction
assembly that acts as a barrier against the spread of fire. (See Appendix A.)
means a system consisting
of a material, component and means of support used to fill gaps between fire separations or between fire separations and other assemblies, or used around items
that wholly or partially penetrate a fire separation.
Fire stop flap
means a device intended
for use in horizontal assemblies required to have a fire-resistance rating and incorporating protective
ceiling membranes, which operates to close off a duct opening through
the membrane in the event of a fire.
means a type of fire separation of noncombustible construction that subdivides a building or separates adjoining buildings to resist the spread of fire and that has a fire-resistance rating as prescribed in this
Code and has structural stability to remain intact under fire conditions
for the required fire-rated time.
means the uppermost storey having its floor level not more than 2 m above grade.
means an index or
classification indicating the extent of spread-of-flame on the surface
of a material or an assembly of materials as determined in a standard
fire test as prescribed in this Code.
means a liquid having
a flash point below 37.8°C and having a vapour pressure not more than 275.8 kPa (absolute) at 37.8°C as determined by
means the minimum temperature
at which a liquid within a container gives off vapour in sufficient
concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface
of the liquid.
means a series of steps between
means the space on any storey of a building between
exterior walls and required firewalls,
including the space occupied by interior walls and partitions, but not including exits, vertical service spaces, and their
means an enclosed passageway for
conveying flue gases.
means the portion of a fuel-fired appliance designed for the attachment of the flue pipe or breeching.
means the pipe connecting
the flue collar of an appliance to a chimney.
means a furnace equipped with a fan that provides the
primary means for the circulation of air.
means a system or arrangement
of foundation units through which the
loads from a building are transferred to
supporting soil or rock.
means one of the structural
members of the foundation of a building such as a footing, raft or pile.
means the phenomenon that
occurs when water in soil is subjected to freezing
which, because of the water/ice phase change or ice lens growth, results
in a total volume increase or the build-up of expansive forces under
confined conditions or both, and the subsequent thawing that leads
to loss of soil strength and increased compressibility.
means a space-heating appliance using warm air as the heating medium
and usually having provision for the attachment of ducts.
means that portion of a venting
system designed to convey vent gases to the outdoors from the vent connector of a gas-fired appliance or directly from the appliance when a vent connector is not used.
means the lowest of the average
levels of finished ground adjoining each exterior wall of a building, except that localized depressions need
not be considered in the determination of average levels of finished
ground. (See First storey and Appendix A.)
means a free standing body
of water in the ground.
means the top surface of a free standing body of water in the ground.
means a protective barrier around
openings in floors or at the open sides of stairs, landings, balconies, mezzanines, galleries, raised walkways or other locations to prevent accidental falls from
one level to another. Such a barrier may or may not have openings
means a fire detector designed to operate at a predetermined
temperature or rate of temperature rise.
Heavy timber construction
type of combustible construction in
which a degree of fire safety is attained by placing limitations on
the sizes of wood structural members and on the thickness and composition
of wood floors and roofs and by the avoidance of concealed spaces
under floors and roofs.
High-hazard industrial occupancy
F, Division 1) means an industrial occupancy containing sufficient quantities of highly combustible and flammable or explosive materials which, because
of their inherent characteristics, constitute a special fire hazard.
means an exit from one building to another
by means of a doorway, vestibule, walkway, bridge or balcony.
Horizontal service space
means a space
such as an attic, duct, ceiling, roof or crawl space oriented essentially
in a horizontal plane, concealed and generally inaccessible, through
which building service facilities such
as pipes, ducts and wiring may pass.
Impeded egress zone
means a supervised
area in which occupants have free movement but require the release,
by security personnel, of security doors at the boundary before they
are able to leave the area, but does not include a contained use area.
Indirect service water heater
a service water heater that derives
its heat from a heating medium such as warm air, steam or hot water.
means the occupancy or use of a building or part thereof for the assembling, fabricating, manufacturing,
processing, repairing or storing of goods and materials.
Interconnected floor space
means superimposed floor areas or parts of floor
areas in which floor assemblies that are required to be fire separations are penetrated by openings
that are not provided with closures.
means the distance
from an exposing building face to a
property line, the centre line of a street, lane or public thoroughfare, or to an imaginary line between 2 buildings or fire compartments on the same property, measured at right angles to the exposing building face.
means a variable load due
to the intended use and occupancy that
is to be assumed in the design of the structural members of a building. It includes loads due to cranes and
the pressure of liquids in containers.
(as applying to a building element) means subjected to or designed
to carry loads in addition to its own dead load, excepting a wall element subjected only to wind or earthquake loads
in addition to its own dead load.
Low-hazard industrial occupancy
F, Division 3) means an industrial occupancy in which the combustible content is not more than 50 kg/m
2 or 1 200 MJ/m
2 of floor area.
means the principal occupancy for which a building or part thereof is used or intended to be used, and shall be deemed
to include the subsidiary occupancies that
are an integral part of the principal occupancy. The major occupancy classifications
used in this Code are as follows:
Assembly occupancies intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts
Assembly occupancies not elsewhere classified in Group A
Assembly occupancies of the arena type
Assembly occupancies in which the occupants are gathered in the open air
Detention occupancies in which persons are under restraint or are incapable of self-preservation
because of security measures not under their control
Business and personal
Masonry or concrete chimney
means a chimney of brick, stone, concrete or masonry
units constructed on site.
Means of egress
means a continuous path
of travel provided for the escape of persons from any point in a building or contained open space to a separate building, an open public thoroughfare, or an
exterior open space protected from fire exposure from the building and having access to an open public
thoroughfare. Means of egress includes exits and access to exits.
(as applying to
a fuel-fired space- or water-heating appliance) means an appliance and its combustion
venting system in which the products of combustion are entirely exhausted
to the outdoors by a mechanical device, such as a fan, blower or aspirator,
upstream or downstream from the combustion zone of the appliance, and the portion of the combustion
venting system that is downstream of the fan, blower or aspirator
is sealed and does not include draft hoods or draft control devices.
(See Appendix A.)
Medium-hazard industrial occupancy
F, Division 2) means an industrial occupancy in which the combustible content is more than 50 kg/m
2 or 1 200 MJ/m
2 of floor area and not classified as a high-hazard industrial occupancy.
means the occupancy or use of a building or part thereof for the displaying or selling of retail goods, wares
means an intermediate floor
assembly between the floor and ceiling of any room or storey and includes an interior balcony.
means that a material
meets the acceptance criteria of
type of construction in which a degree of fire safety is attained
by the use of noncombustible materials
for structural members and other building assemblies.
means the use or intended
use of a building or part thereof for the
shelter or support of persons, animals or property.
means the number of persons
for which a building or part thereof is
means a storey in which at least 25% of the total area of its perimeter
walls is open to the outdoors in a manner that will provide cross-ventilation
to the entire storey.
means any person, firm or corporation
controlling the property under consideration.
means an interior wall 1 storey or part-storey in
height that is not loadbearing.
means a wall jointly owned
and jointly used by 2 parties under easement agreement or by right
in law, and erected at or upon a line separating 2 parcels of land
each of which is, or is capable of being, a separate real-estate entity.
means a free standing
body of water in the ground extending to a limited depth.
means a slender deep foundation unit made of materials such as wood, steel
or concrete or a combination thereof, that is either premanufactured
and placed by driving, jacking, jetting or screwing, or cast-in-place
in a hole formed by driving, excavating or boring. (Cast-in-place
bored piles are often referred to as caissons in Canada.)
means a chamber forming part
of an air duct system.
means a drainage system,
a venting system and a water system or parts thereof.
means a building that is essential to the provision of
services in the event of a disaster, and includes
(See Appendix A.)
- hospitals, emergency treatment facilities and blood banks,
- telephone exchanges,
- power generating stations and electrical substations,
- control centres for air, land and marine transportation,
- public water treatment and storage facilities, and pumping
- sewage treatment facilities and buildings having critical national defence functions, and
- buildings of the following types,
unless exempted from this designation by the authority having jurisdiction:
- emergency response facilities,
- fire, rescue and police stations and housing for vehicles,
aircraft or boats used for such purposes, and
- communications facilities, including radio and television
Private sewage disposal system
a privately owned plant for the treatment and disposal of sewage (such
as a septic tank with an absorption field).
means an industrial occupancy where materials, including flammable liquids, combustible liquids, or gases, are produced or used in a process.
(See Table 188.8.131.52. of Division B of the NFC.)
Protected floor space
means that part
of a floor area protected from the effects
of fire and used as part of a means of egress from an interconnected floor space.
means a corridor that
provides access to exit from more than
one suite. (See Appendix A.)
means a sidewalk, street, highway, square or other open space to
which the public has access, as of right or by invitation, expressed
means a building or part thereof where facilities are provided for
the repair or servicing of motor vehicles.
means the occupancy or use of a building or part thereof by persons for whom sleeping accommodation is provided
but who are not harboured for the purpose of receiving care or treatment and are not involuntarily
means a duct for conveying
air from a space being heated, ventilated or air-conditioned back
to the heating, ventilating or air-conditioning appliance.
means the outermost member
in floor framing, other than blocking, be it parallel, perpendicular
or on an angle to the floor joists. (See Appendix A.)
means that portion of the earth’s
crust that is consolidated, coherent and relatively hard and is a
naturally formed, solidly bonded, mass of mineral matter that cannot
readily be broken by hand.
means the horizontal distance between
two adjacent tread nosings on a stair. (See Figure 9.8.4.-B in Appendix Note A-9.8.4. of Division B.)
Sanitary drainage system
means a drainage
system that conducts sewage.
means a self-contained dwelling unit with a prescribed floor area located in a building or portion of a building of only residential occupancy that contains only one
other dwelling unit and common spaces,
and where both dwelling units constitute
a single real estate entity. (See Appendix A and Article 184.108.40.206. of Division B.)
means a room provided in
a building to contain equipment associated
with building services. (See Appendix A.)
means space provided in
a building to facilitate or conceal the
installation of building service facilities
such as chutes, ducts, pipes, shafts or wires.
Service water heater
means a device
for heating water for plumbing services.
means a foundation unit that derives its support from soil or rock located close
to the lowest part of the building that
means a combined smoke detector and audible alarm device designed
to sound an alarm within the room or suite in
which it is located upon the detection of smoke within that room or suite.
means a fire detector designed to operate when the
concentration of airborne combustion products exceeds a predetermined
means that portion of the earth’s
crust that is fragmentary, or such that some individual particles
of a dried sample may be readily separated by agitation in water;
it includes boulders, cobbles, gravel, sand, silt, clay and organic
means a single wythe or
multi-wythe construction made of solid masonry
units or semi-solid, cored, or hollow masonry units, the cells
of which may or may not be filled with mortar or grout. In multi-wythe
masonry construction, the space between the wythes consists of a mortar-filled
collar joint or grout-filled space and the wythes may or may not be
constructed of the same masonry materials.
Solid masonry unit
means a concrete
block or brick unit, a clay brick unit, or calcium silicate brick
unit whose net solid area is at least 75% of its gross area. (See Appendix A.)
Sound transmission class (STC)
a single number rating of the airborne sound attenuation of a building assembly separating two adjoining spaces,
taking into account the direct sound transmission path. (See Appendix A.) (See also Appendix Note A-9.11. of Division B.)
means a space-heating appliance for heating the room or space within
which it is located, without the use of ducts.
means an appliance intended for the supplying of heat
to a room or space directly, such as a space
heater, fireplace or unit heater, or to rooms or spaces of a building through
a heating system such as a central furnace or boiler.
(as applying to a building or part thereof) means that the building or part thereof is equipped with a system
of automatic sprinklers.
means a space that is designed
primarily for theatrical performances with provision for quick change
scenery and overhead lighting, including environmental control for
a wide range of lighting and sound effects and that is traditionally,
but not necessarily, separated from the audience by a proscenium wall
and curtain opening.
means a building or part thereof intended for the storage or parking
of motor vehicles and containing no provision for the repair or servicing
of such vehicles. (See Appendix A.)
Storage-type service water heater
a service water heater with an integral
hot water storage tank.
means that portion of a building that is situated between the top of
any floor and the top of the floor next above it, and if there is
no floor above it, that portion between the top of such floor and
the ceiling above it.
means an appliance intended for cooking and space heating.
means any highway, road, boulevard,
square or other improved thoroughfare 9 m or more in
width, that has been dedicated or deeded for public use and is accessible
to fire department vehicles and equipment.
means the appraisal
of the general subsurface conditions at a building site by analysis of information gained by such methods as geological
surveys, in situ testing, sampling, visual inspection, laboratory
testing of samples of the subsurface materials and groundwater observations and measurements.
means a single room or series
of rooms of complementary use, operated under a single tenancy, and
includes dwelling units, individual
guest rooms in motels, hotels, boarding houses, rooming houses and
dormitories as well as individual stores and individual or complementary
rooms for business and personal services occupancies. (See Appendix A.)
means a duct for conveying
air from a heating, ventilating or air-conditioning appliance to a space to be heated, ventilated or air-conditioned.
means a tread with non-parallel
edges that increases or decreases its run uniformly over its width.
means a place of public assembly
intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or
the screening and viewing of motion pictures, and consisting of an
auditorium with permanently fixed seats intended solely for a viewing
means the provision of medical
or other health-related intervention to persons, where the administration
or lack of administration of these interventions may render them incapable
of evacuating to a safe location without the assistance of another
person. (See Appendix A.)
means the occupancy or use of a building or part thereof for the provision of treatment, and where overnight accommodation is available to facilitate the treatment. (See Appendix .)
means a suspended space heater with an integral air-circulating
(as applying to exposing building face) means a doorway, window
or opening other than one equipped with a closure having the required fire-protection rating, or any part of a wall forming part of the exposing building face that has a fire-resistance
rating less than that required for the exposing building face.
means any condition
that could cause undue hazard to the life, limb or health of any person
authorized or expected to be on or about the premises.
means a liquid, including flammable liquids and combustible liquids, that is chemically reactive to the extent
that it will vigorously react or decompose at or near normal temperature
and pressure conditions or that is chemically unstable when subjected
means the elements installed
to control the diffusion of water vapour.
(as applying to heating
or cooling systems) means the part of a venting system that conducts
the flue gases or vent gases from the flue collar of a gas appliance to the chimney or gas vent, and may include a draft control device.
Vertical service space
means a shaft
oriented essentially vertically that is provided in a building to facilitate the installation of building services including mechanical, electrical and plumbing
installations and facilities such as elevators, refuse chutes and
means a covered or roofed pedestrian
thoroughfare used to connect 2 or more buildings.